Regulation of cell cycle 16a-hydroxyestrone in breast cancer cells
The breakdown of estradiol (one of the three circulating estrogens in humans) can yield several pathways. The 2- pathway is generally considered beneficial and anti-carcinogenic, while the 16 pathway is considered damaging and carcinogenic. Promotion of the 2 pathway over the 16 is aided by the intake of substances found in cruciferous vegetables. There are now functional medicine labs checking 2/16 hydroxylation ratio to assess a woman’s risk of breast cancer.
J S LEWIS et al.: 16a-Hydroxyestrone and cell cycle regulation (Journal of Molecular Endocrinology)